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The characteristics of agriculture in the 21st century

中興大學 生物系統工程研究室 陳加忠


 . New agriculture in the 21st century

    Faced with the changing situation of the epidemic in 2020, countries all over the world are fighting the epidemic. Food security has become a basic means to stabilize society. After the epidemic, the worldwide agriculture should look like?

1. Self-sufficient agriculture will be replaced by enterprise production    

    Self-sufficiency is representative of a farm, from grain, fruits and vegetables, animal meat and so on, all from own production , only parts of the exchange with other farmers. However, modern agricultural industries can no longer adopt this method. Subsistence agriculture  tend to be the lowest cost and the least efficient production methods. Enterprise production also known as Agriculture-Business, Commercial's Agriculture, Agriculture enterprization. Enterprise production is not as representatives of the European and American agricultural company with several hundred hectares to tens of thousands of hectares of land and only produce a single crop. The commercialization in agriculture represent produce the products in science and technology oriented.


2. The three main bodies of agricultural production    

Food crops: rice, wheat, corn, soybeans, etc.

Nutritional sources: plant sources such as vegetables and fruits. Animal sources are like livestock and aquatic products.

Economic crops: such as tea, coffee, cocoa, rubber , oil palm, etc.


3. Agriculture has become ecological, systemic, and integrated agriculture    

    It is not necessarily a single crop on a single land, but integrated production of  agriculture, livestock, and aquaculture. Waste can be processed for reuse. The integrated production can be carried out in one region, one country or several countries.

4. Mechanization and Automation Agriculture    

    Young person leaves rural gradually, urbanization ratio is increased. The rural population is dominated by the elderly, women and children. Agricultural operations with limited manpower needs be replaced by the mechanization and automation graduately.

5. The division of labor in the global industrial chain will change    

It is impossible to regain complete self-sufficiency in foods. Unless a country is an island, desert or city, it will have its own partial proportional of foods supply chain. That is, each country need to produce partial foods for itself.

6.  Global climate change

Because of the climate change, agriculture will bound from static passive state, to towards dynamic initiative. Agricultural production needs to be arranged in advance planning.


 . The characteristics of modern agriculture in developing countries

1. Rural labor, especially young people move to urban, the problem of land inheritance and ownership will easily solve. The meaning of land as an asset is decreasing in the young generation.

2. The developing countries can avoid the errors of the developing countries. The walk-term of agriculture modernization then is shorten. The errors of agriculture modernization include the excessive use of chemicals, excessive mechanization, excessive dependence on a single crop, and not linked of the three major industries of agriculture, livestock, and aquaculture.    

3. To assist the developing countries, it is necessary to break away from the previous economic assistance and send short-term experts. The understand the natural climate and soil conditions of the country, and the training of local talents are the key. The existing official systems and related units such as agricultural research and extension stations must be activated.


 . To building a modern country from agricultural modernization

1.Agriculture has the largest proportion and the lowest GDP proportion of the population, it becomes the upgrading of economic sectors.

2.Rural areas can release more manpower to the industrial and commercial sector. However, it is necessary to maintain sufficient manpower in rural areas

3.Agricultural income can promote economic and market viability. Rural purchasing power can drive the people's livelihood industry and light industry.

4. The processing of agricultural modernization need to consider the maintain the ecological environment. Besides of the food security, the nutritional balance, economic income, and land integrity are important factors for the development of country.