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生醫研究之統計方法

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統計教學網站介紹- A New View of Statistics

 

中興大學 生物系統工程研究室 陳加忠

 
 

這是Will G Hopkins博士在2000年建立之網站,雖然作者自述是為了“Sport and exercise sciences”建立的網站,但是其他領域也有無限的價值。

網站內容十分豐富。

Summarizing Data

Simple Statistics & Effect Statistics

Basics

Data and VariablesFrequency DistributionsProbability · Statistics

Simple Statistics

The MiddleThe SpreadStandard DeviationRoot Mean Square Error (RMSE)Standard Error of the Estimate (SEE)

Percentile Ranges

Effect Statistics  

Difference in MeansCorrelation CoefficientRelative FrequencyA Scale of Magnitudes

Dimension Reduction

Principal Components Factor Analysis Cluster Analysis

Precision of Measurement

    Measures of Reliability        

Shift in the MeanWithin-Subject Variation Retest CorrelationKappa CoefficientAlpha Reliability

Applications of Reliability

Sample Size for an ExperimentIndividual ResponsesAssessing an IndividualSpreadsheet for Assessing an Individual

Comparing Reliability of MeasuresSample Sizes for Reliability Studies

Reliability: Calculations

IntroductionTwo TrialsThree or More TrialsNonUniform ErrorModeling Variances for Reliability

Biased Estimated of ReliabilitySpreadsheet for Calculating Reliability

Measures of Validity

IntroductionEstimation EquationTypical Error of EstimateCorrelationNominal VariablesSpreadsheet for Calculating Validity

Applications of Validity

Sample Size for a Cross-sectional StudyAssessing an IndividualComparing Validity of Measures

Validity for Monitoring ChangesSample Size for Validity Studies

How Many Digits?

Mean ± SD or Mean ± SEM?

Generalizing to a Population

Confidence Limits

  Generalizing via Confidence Limits

IntroductionAn ExampleEffect of Sample Size on Confidence Interval

Confidence Interval and Statistical Significance

A Spreadsheet for Confidence IntervalsBootstrappingMeta-Analysis· Bayesian Analysis

P-Values and Statistical Significance

What is a P Value? Test StatisticsP Values and Confidence IntervalsConfidence Limits from a P Value

One Tail or Two?Why 0.05?Hypothesis TestingUsing P Values

Getting It Wrong

Type I ErrorType II ErrorBiasSlideshow

Statistical Models

What is a Model?

Simple Models and Tests        

Linear RegressionT Test and One-Way ANOVAContingency TableCategorical Modeling

Models: Important Details

How a Stats Program Fits a ModelParametersResidualsGoodness of FitCalculation of Confidence Limits

Independence of ObservationsNormality of Sampling DistributionUniformity of Residuals

Uniformity of Residuals in Complex ModelsLog Transformation for Better FitsPercent EffectsMore Examples

Non-Parametric Models: Rank TransformationOrdinal Dependent Variables

Counts and Proportions as Dependent VariablesBinomial and Poisson Regression

Square-root and Arcsine-root TransformationLinear and Non-Linear Models

Complex Models

More Than One Independent Variable  Controlling for Something InteractionsAnalysis of Covariance (ANCOVA)

Multiple Linear RegressionStepwise RegressionPolynomial RegressionTwo-Way ANOVA

More Than One Dependent Variable · Variables of Uncertain Status

Repeated-Measures ANOVA

Paired T Test: Two trials and no between-subjects effectTwo trials plus a between-subjects effect · Simple crossovers

Three or more trials and no between-subjects effect

Three or more trials plus a between-subjects effectMultiple crossoversOther Repeated-Measures Models

Proc Mixed for Repeated MeasuresRegression to the Mean

Estimating Sample Size

The Right Number of SubjectsWhat Determines Sample SizeSample Size Based on Confidence Limits

Sample Size "On The Fly"On the Fly for CorrelationsOn the Fly for Differences Between Means

On the Fly for Differences Between Frequencies

On the Fly: Miscellaneous

Other Designs On the Fly for the Ethical CommitteeDo NOT Fly with Statistical SignificanceSpreadsheet

Simulation for Sample Size

Steps in the Process Cross-Sectional Study Longitudinal Study

 

在學術著作中,如果引用網站資料,參考文獻引注如下:

Hopkins W.G. (2000). A New View of Statistics, http://newstatsi.org. Accessed day, month, year.

如果是網站內特定內容,參考文獻引注如下,

Hopkins W.G. (2003). Bayesian analysis. In: A New View of Statistics, http://newstatsi.org/generalize.html#Bayes. Accessed day, month, years.