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武漢肺炎與產業

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Orchids Cultivation

 

 
武漢肺炎下政府與民間企業迫切需要關注的行動

 

中興大學 生物系統工程研究室 陳加忠

 
 

Source: Tackling COVID-19 in Africa, McKinsey & Company

I.政府的行動

1. 建立國家神經中心

在私營部門和其他主要利益團體的密切參與下,各國政府需要採取迅速行動,成立或建立國家神經中心,以協調和加快其對危機的反應。這些神經中樞應匯集關鍵性的領導技能,組織能力和數字工具,使得領導者有最大的機會領先事件,而不是只對事件做出反應。

2. 預測和管理健康危機

各國政府將需要採取更強有力的措施來延遲和減少疫情的高峰期,包括通過限制出行和封鎖來加強與社會的距離,進行大規模監視以測試和隔離已發現的病例。同時,政府必須立即為可能迅速增加的病例做準備,這將需要大量的測試設施,醫院病床,呼吸器和其他醫療設備,以及額外的衛生專業人員。

3. 確保糧食供應和基本服務

政府需要確保食品供應鏈,特別是優先產品的供應,並確保這些產品的適當價格。他們還需要確保維持對電信和公用事業等的基本服務。

4. 確保對最脆弱人群的支持

這包括採取措施,通過包括現金發放在內的社會安全網機制,保護工作並支持受影響的社區,特別是最脆弱的人群。

5. 預測並管理對經濟的影響

各國政府需要通過情景分析來預測可能對經濟產生的影響。並提供短期刺激計劃以維持金融穩定並幫助企業度過危機,尤其是戰略行業的企業。考慮到預期

 

II.民間企業的行動

私營企業的首要責任是確保危機中的業務連續性。公司的關鍵步驟要從建立自己的中樞神經中心開始。

1.建立公司的中樞神經中心

  此神經中樞針對以下四個關鍵方向,協調公司的反應。

2.保護員工隊伍

  這裡的重點是確保在安全的工作環境中繼續就業。所需使用方法包括調整輪班或遠程工作。通過安全的工作設施和嚴格隔離可疑病例來維護員工的健康。

3.穩定供應鏈

  公司需要通過供應商透明參與,需求評估以及生產和營運調整來保證業務連續性。

4.吸引客戶

  公司磨練其危機溝通能力,並確定關鍵政策的變化。在確保與社會隔離的準則下,爭取到豁免取消罰金與重新預訂交易費用等機會。

5.財務壓力測試

  公司需要製定和評估相關的流行病學對於經濟影響方案。解決營運計劃的資金需求。還需要確定整個企業的成本控制領域。

 

 Five key areas for urgent focus by governments

1. Set up national nerve centers. Governments, with the close involvement of the private sector and other key stakeholders, need to take rapid action to set up or build out national nerve centers to coordinate and accelerate their response to the crisis. These nerve centers should bring together crucial leadership skills, organizational capabilities, and digital tools— giving leaders the best chance of getting ahead of events rather than reacting to them.

 

2. Anticipate and manage the health crisis.

Governments will need to take even stronger measures to delay and reduce the peak of the epidemic—including more intensive social distancing through mobility restrictions and lockdowns as well as larger-scale surveillance to test and isolate identified cases. In parallel, governments must immediately prepare for a potentially rapid surge of cases, which will demand significant numbers of testing facilities, hospital beds, ventilators and other medical equipment, as well as additional health professionals. Given the limited existing resources in most African healthcare systems, bold and locally tailored measures will be required to create surge capacity and prevent mortality among the most vulnerable population.

 

3. Secure food supply and essential services.

Governments need to secure food supply chains, particularly the supply of priority products—and ensure the appropriate pricing of these products. They will also need to ensure that access to essential services such as telecoms and utilities is maintained.

 

4. Ensure support for most vulnerable populations.

 This includes taking measures to protect jobs and to support affected communities, particularly the most vulnerable populations, through social safety-net mechanisms—including cash transfers.

 

5. Anticipate and manage the impact on the economy.

Governments need to anticipate what the impact on their economy is likely to be through scenario analysis and offer a short-term stimulus package to maintain financial stability and help businesses survive the crisis—particularly those in strategic industries. Given the expected loss of tax revenue, governments will also need to identify opportunities to urgently reduce non-essential spending.

 

Actions for the private sector

The first responsibility of private-sector firms is to ensure business continuity in the ongoing crisis. Based on our discussions with risk and health professionals in more than 200 companies across sectors, we suggest several critical steps for firms—starting with establishing their own central nerve centers. These nerve centers can co-ordinate company responses on four key dimensions, as follows:

1.Protect workforces.

The focus here is to guarantee continuation of employment in a safe working environment; adjust to shift or remote work with the required tools; and preserve the employees’ health through safe working facilities and strict isolation of suspected cases.

2.Stabilize supply chains.

Companies need to guarantee business continuity through transparent supplier engagement, demand assessment and adjustments of production and operations.

 3.Engage customers.

 Companies can hone their crisis communication and identify changes in key policies, ranging from guidelines to guarantee social distancing, to waivers of cancellation and rebooking fees.

 4.Stress-test financials.

Companies need to develop and assess relevant epidemiological and economic impact scenarios to address and plan for working capital requirements. They will also need to identify areas for cost containment across the business.