The purpose of the
spiking inhibition technique of Phalaenopsis is to prevent these
plants from vegetable phase to reproductive phase. It is an important
technique for the Phalaenopsis industry.
Recently, more orchids
growers like to purchase the mature plants of Phalaenopsis so the
turnover could be reduced. The higher temperature and relative humility
in Taiwan provide the opportunity for the faster growing of orchids.
However, the winter weather enhanced the spiking of Phalaenopsis.
As the spiking was induced in the young stage, the quality of orchids
would be decreased. In order to supply the mature Phalaenopsis
plants for the overseas market, the spiking inhibition technique need to
be understood for growers.
As the factors that
influence Phalaenopsis spiking induction are understood, the
spiking inhibition technique is easy to be conducted. However, the
difficult of the technique for growers is to inhibit spiking of
Phalaenopsis and to keep these plants grow. That is, the inhibition
technique can not interrupt the growing stage of plants.
The basic requirements
of spike inhibition technique are introduced as follows:
This method must be simple,
efficiency and economical.
The inhibition period and the
spiking period might be connected. As the growers finish the inhibition
operation, the inducing process could be conducted continuously.
The quantity and quality of orchids
could not be damaged by the inhibition operations. In the inhibition
processing, the plants need to maintain in the healthy conditions.
The growing schedule of orchids did
not be interrupt by the inhibition operation. If the orchids cease
growing in the inhibition phase, the greenhouse space was limited and
energy consumption is lost. The reasonable technique of inhibition is to
keep the plants growing and to prevent it from changing it to
The requirement factors
of the inducing spikes for the Phalaenopsis are listed as
The environmental factors, such as
temperature, light intensity and light period.
The management, such as watering,
fertilization and hormones applying.
The inhibition operation
could be developed by considering on the contrary way of spikes
The abnormal stress
included the drought treatment and root injuring. These factors could
enhance the spiking. However, the plant was damaged and the flower
quality is poor. Both factors can be avoided by the training of labors.
The other abnormal stress was inducted by the interrupt change of
greenhouse temperature. For example, the outsize cold air was sucked
into greenhouse by the improper control strategy. This case could be
Some special chemicals
had been applied by the growers to prevent the orchids from spiking. The
principle of the chemical application was to decrease the C/N ratio, or
retard the formation of GA or BA hormone. Some secret chemicals had
indeed the ability to retard or prevent the N adsorption. These chemical
are useful to prevent spiking. However, as the growers wanted to cease
the inhibition and transform plants to the inducing phase, it required a
longer period to dilute the concentrations of chemicals in the plants.
This technique is impractical for orchids industry.
By the environmental
control technique, growers could control the change of the day and night
temperature, light period and quantity of the greenhouse. The purpose of
this technique is to change the C/N ratio or maintain at higher
temperature. The higher C/N ratio is helpful for spiking. On the
contrary, the decrease of the C/N ratio could be benefit for the
inhibition. The cold temperature stress induces spiking and so the
maintain of higher greenhouse temperature could prevent the spiking.
Reduce the carbon source
Reducing the carbon
source is useful for the inhibition. The carbon of orchids is obtained
by the photosynthesis. The influencing factors are light, temperature
and water. Recently, some inhibition techniques are developed by
considering of these factors. The full dark cloth treatment (no light
source) could inhibit the spiking because of the lack of energy source
for Phalaenopsis. Some growers applied the treatments of five
day’s dark period and two day’s light period to help the inhibition of
the spiking. However, the most difficult parameter for this technique is
how to determine the accumulation light quantity. This technique
required the precision measurement of light quantity and the full
acknowledge of the required minimum light quantity of orchids.
Change the setting of day and night
To maintain the day and
night temperature at the optimum level is the most effective way to
inhibit the spiking and let the plants keep growing. For example, the
24℃ day temperature and 20℃ night temperature is the critical
temperature for growing and preventing spiking of the amabilis variety.
The 28℃ day temperature and 24℃ night temperature is the critical
temperature for the V3 large White Phalaenopsis.
Why the energy cost is
so high for preventing spiking? The reason is simple. The setting
temperatures of day and night in the greenhouse were so high. According
to the Culture Guide of Phalaenopsis for Floricultural b.v. and
Anthura b.v., the setting temperature of growing phase are 28℃
and 26 ℃
for day and night temperature. This critical temperature is correct for
the selected varieties of both companies. The required heating energy
was higher than that of the other crops. However, the critical values
of this inhibition temperature are not the standard value for all
Phalaenopsis varieties. Many varieties would lose their quality and
vitality in this temperature range.
The energy cost for the
heating is determined by the structure and covering films of greenhouse,
the outside air conditions, heating equipments and the setting
temperature of greenhouse. The effective way to inhibit the spiking and
maintain the growth of plants is to maintain the optimum conditions of
plants. The optimum conditions of each variety include the aerial
environment (temperature, light, relative humidity, et al.) and
root environment (water content, fertilizing management, et al.).
reasonable techniques of spiking inhibition are:
To know the physiological
characteristics of varieties.
According the production plants,
selected the adequate varieties by their requirement temperature.
Maintain the day and night
temperature of greenhouse according to the required condition of these
The adequate variety for the inhibition spiking easily and energy
serving is the variety that required higher day temperature (ex. 28-33℃)
and lower temperature (ex. 22-24℃) for growing. The day temperature is
easy to be increase by the solar energy. This is the cheapest energy for
orchids industry. The heating energy at night is the expensive cost for
orchids production. Maintain the optimum night temperature to inhibit
the spiking and maintain the growth of plants is the best way for the
inhibition spiking technique.