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Floricultura公司2017年蘭花栽培技術之一

Orchids Cultivation

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The Cooperation of the Taiwan orchids nursery and
Overseas Company

 
 

The procedures of the cooperation projects for Taiwan orchids nursery and Overseas companies are introduced as follows

I.      The collection of related information from the overseas companies

1.          The market information

(1)       What is the required period for the orchids to sale

The required quantities of orchids are similar all over years, or the required quantities are emphasized in some special festivals, such as the Mother day or the Christmas.

(2)       The adequate time for the orchids to be send to market. For example, what is the adequate time to deliver the orchids for the Mother Day? The sales period is from May 1st to May 14th, or from May 5th to May 12th?

(3)       The required qualities of Phalaenopsis

What is the required pot size? 2, 3, 4 or 5 inch pot? One spike or two spikes? The height of stem, size of flower, numbers of flower?

2.          The weather information of overseas companies

The required information of overseas companies included the maximum temperature, the minimum temperature, the maximum and minimum relative humidity, numbers of snowing day or raining day, the wind speed, the sun shine hours, the maximum solar intensity. The severe conditions such as typhoon or hurricane need to be recorded. The questionnaire is listed as Table 1. The time intervals may be ten-day or one month.

3.          The size of Phalaenopsis plants

Different sizes of the Phalaenopsis plantlets at different growing stages can be supplied form Taiwan nursery. They included flask, small-size (leaf span 10~12cm), medium size (3" pot), larger size (4" pot), and plant with spikes. The required culture time of Phalaenopsis from flasks to flowering phase is so long. The younger plant of overseas company received, the more time to take care them form the arrived time to the sales day.

 

II.   The culture plan for Taiwan orchids nursery.    

From the information of above items of overseas customers, the adequate varieties could be screened from the data base of Biosystems Engineering Lab. National ChungHsing University. The physiological characteristics of Phalaenopsis variety included the adequate range of day temperature, night temperature, and the light intensity for vegetative, cooling and flowering phase.  

(I)    The production schedule in Taiwan

As the adequate varieties are selected for customs, the growers in Taiwan can arrange the production schedule according to the following conditions:

1.      The deliver time of orchids plants from Taiwan to.

2.      The sales date of flowering products.

3.      The weather conditions in overseas nursery from the arrived time to the sales date. 

(II) The greenhouse for overseas company

The requirement functions of greenhouse for Phalaenopsis culture in overseas company could be designed or re-modified by above information. The detail items of greenhouse are:

1.      The covering materials, shading nets.

2.      The specification of equipments, such as fan numbers, thickness and area of pads, capacity of heaters.  

3.      Greenhouse layout: the actual planting area of greenhouse, the moving routes of materials.

4.      Energy requirement.

As the specification of greenhouse are investigated (Table 2), the greenhouse of costumer could be modified or reconstructed. The production cost per area for per year can be estimated. The fixed cost includes depression, interest, and maintained cost. The variable cost includes energy, chemicals, water, electricity, labors, and plantlets.

Comparing the production cost and income of the sales, the benefit of this project can be estimated.

 

III.           Technique supports

As the plantlets are transported from Taiwan to Oversea nursery, the culture technique needs to be connected. The supporting techniques are:

1.      Management techniques include: Irrigation, fertilization, and pest control.        

2.      Culture guides of spiking and flowering phase.

3.      The information of disorder and stress condition of plants, and how to release these stresses.

The technique can be supposed by telephone, or e-mail. The picture of plants can be easily transported by e-mail. These pictures can be analyzed by consults in Taiwan and send back the suggestion to solve the problems.

 

Table 1. Weather information of the overseas company

Month

 

Max.
Temp.

Min.
Temp.

Rain
mm

Rain
day

Sunny
day

Max. RH
 

Min.
RH
%

Wind
Speed
km/h

Sun
shine
hours

Max.
Sun
Intensity

 1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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 11

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Table 2. Questionnaire for Greenhouse Environment Reconstruction

A.    Structure

1. type

      Freestanding house

      Gutter connect house

 

 

2. Dimension

Length

________m

 

Width

________m

 

Side Height

________m

 

Top Height

________m

 

 

B.     Covering materials

1. Type

    Polyethylene,     P.V.C.,
    Polycarbonate,     Glass,
    Othersplease write the name

2. Layer

    Single,     Double

3. Thickness of Film

________mm

 

C.    Ventilation

1. Natural ventilation

    Roof vents, area________m
    Sidewall vents, area________m

 

2.     Exhaust fans

3.     H.A.F. Fans

No. of fans________

No. of fans________

Horse power________hp

Horse power________hp

Ventilation rate________CMM

Ventilation rate________CMM

 

D.    Cooling system

1.     Pad,

Area________ m2

2.     Misting,

No. of  Nozzles________
water supply of nozzles
________

3.     Fogging,

No. of  Nozzles________
water supply of nozzles
________

 

E.    Heating system

1.    

Hot water boilers, Capacity________

2.    

heat air heater, Capacity________

3. Fuel

    Gas     L. P,     Oil

 

F.     Artificial Lighting

1. ________ No. of Light

2. light intensity________ or ________ Lux

 

G.    Screen

1.     Insect proof net

2.     Thermal screen

3.     Shading screen, of shade ________

 

H.    Benches

    In Ground

    Above Ground

    Stationary

    Rolling

    Ebb/flow

    Tray

 

I.       Environment control Equipments

1.     Manual

2.     Thermostate

3.     Analog control

4.     Computer control

 

About the author:

Professor Chiachung Chen, Ph. D.

Biosystems Engineering Laboratory
National ChungHsing University

250 KuoKuang Rd.,

Taichung, Taiwan 40227

Tel: 886-4-22857562, Fax: 886-4-22857135

Web site: http://bse.nchu.edu.tw

Email: ccchen@dragon.nchu.edu.tw
 

 

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