logo821.gif (10572 bytes) 首頁          新增資料與公告

最新消息:

為何大數據在農業尚未有初步進展

 

 

Orchids Cultivation

首頁
上一層
BSE LAB 介紹
生醫研究之統計方法
授課資料
人文關懷
無官御史台
智能生物產業
蘭花產業
蘭界感言篇
活動公告區

 

 

Cultivation of Phalaenopsis in different media

-A Preliminary Technique Report-

 

Chiachung Chen

 

About the author:

Professor Chiachung Chen, Ph. D.

Biosystems Engineering Laboratory
National ChungHsing University

250 KuoKuang Rd.,

Taichung, Taiwan 40227

Tel: 886-4-22857562, Fax: 886-4-22857135

Web site: http://bse.nchu.edu.tw/orchids_cultivation.htm

Email: ccchen@dragon.nchu.edu.tw

 
!!! This document does not received the official peer review. The content of this document is not suitable for presenting in public.
 

1.  Purpose

The objective of this study was to compare the growth characteristics of two varieties of Phalaenopsis with different media. The suggestions of the adequate management for different media were proposed.

 

2.     Materials and Method

2.1. Media

Three types of media were used:

1.   Sphagnum moss

The traditional medium used in Taiwan. These materials were imported from Chile.

2.   Excellent plug

From the Quick Plug b.v. (www.quickplug.nl)

3.   BSE medium

This medium was produced by Biosystems Engineering Lab., National ChungHsing University. This mixed medium contained coconut coir (33%) + peat moss (33%) + Sphagnum moss (33%). All materials were crushed into piece before mixing. They were made into half- cylinder shape with hot welt adhesive power.

2.2. Plant materials

Uniform, micro propagation plantlets of two varieties were used:

1.   KM13

P. Taisuco “Little princes”, little size flower (5.5cm), red color.

2.   Taida A074

D. Fuller’s Sunset” Large yellow color, flower size > 10.5cm.

Plant materials, two varieties of plantlets, were taken out from flasks and transplanted with different media on 30 September 2015. These plants were irrigated with water contained 250 ppm 20N-20P-20K soluble fertilizer. The irrigation periods were different. Quick Plug (Excellent plug) and BSE media were irrigated every 2-3 days. These plants filled with sphagnum moss were irrigated every 5-7 days.

2.3. Measurements of physical properties

There are six physical properties and two chemical properties were measured for three media.

2.3.1. Physical properties

The determined method and definition was illustrated as Appendix I.

1.   Total porosity (TP)

2.   Container Capacity (CC)

3.   Moisture contact (MC)

4.   Air space (AS)

5.   Bulk density (BD)

6.   Water absorptivity (WA)

2.3.2. Chemical proportion

1.   EC

2.   pH

2.4. Measurements of growth characteristics

The growth characteristics included leaf area, fresh and dry weights of leaves, Chlorophyll index, numbers of roots, the maximum length of roots, fresh and dry weights of roots. Then the root and shoot ratio (R/T ratio) was computed with measurement dry weights of roots and shoots. The numbers of sample were 16 replicates.

The fresh weight of roots and leaves was measured by using of an electronic balance (Metter PM 400, HP, Palo Alto, CA). The leaf area was determined with use of an area meter (LI-300 area meter, L2-COR, Inc. Lincoln, NE). The chlorophyll content was expressed as the SPAD value of the chlorophyll index and determined by use of a chlorophyll meter (SPAD 502, Minolta Co. Osaka, Japan).

The comparison of significant difference was executed by t test with 95% confidence.

 

2.5. Field tests by orchid growers

Two parts of Quick plug were sending to two orchid’s growers. One grower used his experience for Phalaenopsis cultivated with sphagnum moss to manage all plants that were filled with two media (sphagnum moss and Quick Plug). The other grower irrigated these plants in different way, he supply the water according the observation of moisture state of medium in the pots.

 

3. Results and discussions

3.1. The properties of three media.

The measurement of physical and chemical proportion of three media is in Table 1 and 2. 

Sphagnum moss has the higher values of TP, MC, AS and WA than that of Quick plug. However, Quick plug has the better CC value. The sphagnum moss could hold more water than that Quick plug. Quick Plug could absorbed water quicker and got dry more easily, so the Quick plug had better air exchange ability than that of sphagnum moss. 

The chemical properties of media are in Table 2. The pH value of Quick plug near to pH: 7.0. The EC Electrical conductively of Quick plug is lower than new sphagnum moss of no treatment.

3.2. Growth characteristics

The average values of growth characteristics of two varieties with three media at 9 and 18 weeks after deflasking are in Tables 3 and 4.

The qualitative criteria of young plants of Phalaenopsis are as follows:

1.   Leaf area: The larger the better

2.   Dry weights of loaves: The more the better

3.   Chlorophyll index: The higher the better

4.   Number of roots: The less the better

5.   Length of roots: The shorter the better

6.   Dry weights of roots: The more the better

7.   Root and shoot ratio: The higher the better

The comparison results of Sphagnum moss and Quick Plug are in Tables 5 and 6.

From Tables 5 and 6, Quick plug had the better performance than that of sphagnum moss for most of growth characteristics.

On summary, if grower cultivated plants with adequate manage work, the growth performance of Phalaenopsis plants that use of Quick plug is better than that of use of sphagnum moss.

 

3.3. Field tests

The field tests by two orchid growers presented the different results.

1.   Irrigated plants with different way

The first orchid grower took care these plants in different way. He irrigated plants with Quick plug once with 2 day’s interval and for sphagnum moss with 5-7 day’s interval. The growth performance with Quick plug was very well (Figure 3).

2.   Irrigated plants with same method of sphagnum moss

The second grower insisted irrigated plants cultivated with different media by using the traditional way. The plants filled with Quick plug lack of enough water. The root development was poor and the grower performance was not better than that of sphagnum moss (Figure 4).

 

4.  Conclusions and suggestion

  1. By the adequate management, the growth characteristics of Phalaenopsis plants cultured with Quick plug are better than that of using sphagnum moss. They have more dry weights of leaves and roots, higher R/T ratio.

  2. The physical proportions are different for two media. With new medium, the time and quantity of irrigation need to be modified for orchid growers who are used to using sphagnum moss.

  3. Because of the micro climate of greenhouse in Taiwan is very different with that of The Netherlands. The conditions are higher solar radiation, higher relative humidity and longer solar period in Taiwan. The evaporation of medium was affected by these factors. The new medium supplier company needs to prove the culture guide and establish some demonstration sites for extension this new product.

 

5.  Further study

The next step for young plants is to transplant into “2.5 or 3.5” pot in Taiwan. The sphagnum moss or bark may be used as medium for next stage. The connection technique of this transplantation needs to be studied in advances. The effect of the new medium on spiking and flowering needed to be observed and recorded. More research works need to performed for extending this new medium to subtropics and tropic countries.

 

Table 1. Physical properties of three media

 

 

Total porosity
TP

Container capacity
CC

Moisture content
MC

Air space
 AS

Bulk density
 BD

Water absorptivity
WA

Quick plug

Ave.

78.74

48.49

84.66

30.25

0.09

5.52

SD

1.61

0.49

0.45

1.42

0.00

0.19

Sphagnum Moss

Ave

93.1

37.0

93.5

58.1

0.11

15.2

SD

1.55

.88

.33

1.25

0.00

0.65

BSE medium

Ave.

83.13

66.96

83.97

16.17

0.13

5.24

SD

0.92

1.71

0.19

0.84

0.00

0.07

 

Table 2 Chemical properties of three media

 

 

pH

EC

Quick plug

Ave.

6.57

0.25

SD

0.11

0.01

Sphagnum Moss

Ave.

5.35

1.15

SD

0.13

0.10

BSE medium

Ave.

5.43

0.85

SD

0.04

0.13

 

Table 3. The growth characteristics of two varieties after 9 weeks transplantation

Taisuco “Little princes”

 

R/S ratio

Leaf area
(cm2)

Leaf fresh Weight
(g)

Leaf dry weight
(g)

Chlorophyll index
(SPAD)

Number of
roots

Max.
Root length
(cm)

Root fresh weight
(g)

Root dry weight
(g)

BSE medium

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ave

0.814

49.361

4.473

0.254

46.7

8.2

6.04

3.386

0.204

SD

 

5.414

0.531

0.021

1.458

0.663

0.645

0.492

0.0271

CV

 

11.43%

11.87%

7.79%

3.12%

8.09%

10.68%

14.53%

13.28%

Sphagnum moss

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ave

0.811

48.807

4.171

0.205

45.56

10.2

4.78

2.696

0.171

SD

 

3.1147

0.306

0.0167

0.926

1.068

0.326

0.212

0.0284

CV

 

6.39%

7.34%

8.11%

2.03%

10.47%

6.82%

7.84%

16.73%

Quick plug

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ave

1.062

57.950

5.238

0.246

50.92

9.2

6.12

4.374

0.260

SD

 

5.610

0.542

0.031

0.988

1.113

0.404

0.362

0.036

CV

 

9.71%

10.24%

14.2%

1.94%

12.1%

6.6%

8.26%

13.86%