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Spiking and Flowering of the Phalaenopsis

 
 

Part II. Flowering technique

The flowering phase is the last stage of Phalaenopsis production. The timing and quality of flowering influenced the sale price.

The temperature is the key factor of the flowering phase. Others factors, such as light intensity and fertilizing are introduced in Table 1. The temperature factor is classified into five different stages.

1.      The growing temperature at day and night, Tdg, Tng.

2.      The pretreatment temperature at day and night, Tdp, Tnp.

3.      The cooling temperature at day and night, Tdc, Tnc.

4.      The spike extension temperature at day and night, Tde, Tne.

5.      The blossoming temperature at day and night, Tdb, Tnb.

The flowering stage is divided into two phases:

1.      Spike extension phase: the period from the spike length is 3-5 cm to all the buds are appearing.

2.     Blossoming phase: the period from the buds begin to develop to all buds are developed. 

A.    Spike extension phase

The light intensity, light period and fertilizing concentrations (N-P-K, 20-20-20) are the same as the growing stage. The day temperature is ranged from Tdc and Tdg and the night temperature is ranged from Tnc and Tng. The higher day temperature could increase the extending speed of spike.

However, if the setting day temperature is higher than the growing temperature, a leaf will develop on the spike. The plant will switch back to the vegetative phase after a reproductive (flowering) stage. It is called "Keiki's".

The temperature difference between day and night influences the length of stem. If the day temperature is pretty high, the first bud will form far away the base of leaf. The flowering quality is poor. 

B.     Blossoming phase

In this stage, the first bud is open and the others buds then continuous opened it. The temperature is the key parameter for the flower quality. If the day temperature is too high, the flower color will fade and the branch numbers will decrease. The higher night temperature will decrease of the flower numbers and reduce the flower size.

The common problems of the bud developing phase include:

1.        Only the development of spate, no bud was formed.

2.        Buds do not open further.

3.        Flower buds are not swelling.

4.        Buds begin fall out.

The reason for the above physiological abnormalities is the lack of carbon source. In other words, the dry matters can not transport from the source (leaves) to the sinks (buds or flower). However, the roots also required the dry matter. If roots are not in good health condition, the dry matters are transported to the roots priority. The flower quality is degraded.

The common problems of buds development are due to the lack of dry matters. The basic requirements of plant for the high quality flower are:

1.      The roots are in health conditions, no salt accumulation and no insect damage.

2.      The leaves are in good conditions, no pest infection, no damaged.

3.      The watering and fertilizing are maintained in good operation.

These abnormalities are different widely between species. However, the principle of Plant Physiology always is the basic guide for the management of flowering stage.

Table 1. Environmental factors of different stage for several Phalaenopsis varieties

 

 

Data sources: Culture Guide of Floricultura b.v.

Big white variety: V3

Small white variety: amabilis

variety: Hsin-Yen Beauty

variety: Fortune Saltzman

variety: Queen Beer

Ⅰ.
Growing Stage

1. Tdg

2. Tng

3. Light

28℃

26℃

4500-6000 lux

28-32℃

23-25℃

23000 lux

24-30℃

22-24℃

16000 lux

26-30℃

19-26℃

18000 lux

24-30℃

18-22℃

15000 lux

28-32℃

20-23℃

15000 lux

Ⅱ.
pretreatment

1. Tdp

2. Tnp

3. Light

28℃

26℃

4500-6000 lux

30-34℃

23-25℃

28000 lux

28-32℃

22-24℃

20000 lux

28-32℃

19-26℃

21000 lux

28-30℃

21-22℃

18000 lux

30-32℃

20-23℃

18000 lux

Ⅲ.
spiking

1. Tdc

2. Tnc

3. Light

20℃

18℃

7000-8000 lux

20-24℃

17-22℃

26000 lux

18-22℃

18-20℃

18000 lux

18-24℃

17-19℃

20000 lux

18-20℃

17-18℃

16000 lux

20-24℃

18-19℃

16000 lux

Ⅳ.
Spike extending

1. Tde

2. Tne

3. Light

23℃

20℃

6000 lux

22-26℃

17-22℃

23000 lux

20-24℃

18-22℃

18000 lux

18-24℃

17-19℃

18000 lux

18-22℃

17-18℃

16000 lux

20-24℃

18-19℃

16000 lux

Ⅴ.
Blossoming

1. Tdb

2. Tnb

3. Light

23℃

20℃

6000 lux

20-24℃

18-22℃

22000 lux

20-24℃

18-22℃

16000 lux

18-23℃

17-19℃

18000 lux

18-20℃

17-18℃

15000 lux

20-22℃

18-19℃

15000 lux

 

Note: 1. The growing temperature at day and night, Tdg, Tng.

2. The pretreatment temperature at day and night, Tdp, Tnp.

3. The cooling temperature at day and night, Tdc, Tnc.

4. The spike extension temperature at day and night, Tde, Tne.

5. The blossoming temperature at day and night, Tdb, Tnb.

 

About the author:

Professor Chiachung Chen, Ph. D.

Biosystems Engineering Laboratory
National ChungHsing University

250 KuoKuang Rd.,

Taichung, Taiwan 40227

Tel: 886-4-22857562, Fax: 886-4-22857135

Web site: http://bse.nchu.edu.tw

Email: ccchen@dragon.nchu.edu.tw